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क्या होगा जब 130 करोड़ भारतीय एक साथ अपने घरों में रोशनी बंद करते हैं?

यह सवाल है कि COVID​​-19 संकट के बीच, प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी द्वारा देश में एकजुटता दिखाने के लिए किया गया अव्हाहन इंजीनियरों के लिए सिरदर्द बनने वाला है|

“यह अचानक गति में एक कार के ब्रेक लगाने जैसा है … यह भविष्यवाणी करना मुश्किल है कि कार वास्तव में कैसे व्यवहार करेगी। ” बिजली क्षेत्र से एक वरिष्ठ कार्यकारी ने कहा।

उद्योग के अधिकारियों के अनुसार, उन नौ मिनटों की योजना के लिए उनके पास दो दिन का समय है। “यह एक चुनौती है, और कुछ अभूतपूर्व है। लेकिन यह संभव है,” उद्योग से एक और कार्यकारी ने कहा।

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आपको बिजली कैसे मिलती है?

तीन महत्वपूर्ण हितधारक हमारे घरों तक बिजली सुनिश्चित करने के लिए जिम्मेदार हैं – टाटा पावर और एनटीपीसी जैसे बिजली जनरेटर; वितरण कंपनियां जो प्रत्येक राज्य में है; और अंत में राज्य भार प्रेषण केंद्र, या SLDC, जो बिजली की मांग के साथ आपूर्ति के संतुलन बनाने में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाते हैं।

ट्रैफिक पुलिस की तरह, SLDC जनरेटर और वितरकों के बीच यह तय करने के लिए समन्वय करता है कि ग्रिड में कितनी बिजली की आपूर्ति की जाती है। एक दिन को प्रत्येक 15 मिनट के 96 समय ब्लॉक में विभाजित किया गया है, और प्रत्येक राज्य में SLDC प्रत्येक ब्लॉक के लिए मांग और आपूर्ति का शेड्यूल तैयार करता है।

यह एक पूरी तरह स्वचालित और वैज्ञानिक प्रक्रिया है |

SLDC की बहुत महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका है। यह सुनिश्चित करना है कि पावर ग्रिड लाइनों में चलने वाली बिजली की आवृत्ति 48.5 और 51.5 हर्ट्ज के बीच होनी चाहिए।

“अगर यह बहुत अधिक हो जाता है (जब आपूर्ति बहुत अधिक होती है) या बहुत कम (जब मांग अधिक हो जाती है), तो लाइनें फ़ैल हो सकती हैं, जिससे आउटेज हो सकता है(बिजली चली जाती है),” उन्होंने कहा।

2012 के ब्लैकआउट में कुछ ऐसा ही हुआ था – दुनिया में सबसे बड़ा – जब अचानक मांग बढ़ने से ट्रिपिंग हुई और लगभग 600 मिलियन भारतियों को बिना बिजली के रहना पड़ा।

आपूर्ति पर नियंत्रण

5 अप्रैल को, मांग के बजाय, खतरा आपूर्ति बढ़ने और आवृत्ति को बाधित करने से है, जब भारतीय रात 9 बजे एक साथ लाइट बंद कर देंगे। यह लाइन की ट्रिप कर सकता है, और बिजली जा सकती है।

महत्वपूर्ण काम आपूर्ति का प्रबंधन करना है।

भारत को विभिन्न स्रोतों से बिजली मिलती है – थर्मल, हाइडल, गैस, पवन और सौर। आपूर्ति को कम करने के लिए इनमें से किस स्रोत को समायोजित किया जा सकता है?

एक इंजीनियर ने कहा, “सौर उर्जा रात में उत्पन्न नहीं होता है। हवा निरंतर है और इसे रोका नहीं जा सकता। लेकिन हाइडल और गैस संयंत्र को पूरी तरह से बंद करना संभव है।” और एक हाइडल या गैस प्लांट को फिर से शुरू करना कोई मुश्किल कार्य नहीं है।

थर्मल प्लांट के साथ ऐसा नहीं है। “एक थर्मल प्लांट को फिर से चालू करने में घंटों लग सकते हैं,” एक कार्यकारी ने कहा।

इंडियन एनर्जी एक्सचेंज (IEX) के आंकड़ों के अनुसार, बिजली की मांग में कमी आई है, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप 5 अप्रैल की डिलीवरी के लिए 9 बजे से 9.15 बजे के टाइम स्लॉट के लिए बिजली के लिए 69 पैसे प्रति यूनिट की कीमत है। इसकी तुलना में, शनिवार (4 अप्रैल) के लिए समान समय अवधि के लिए बिजली की प्रति यूनिट कीमत per 2.90 प्रति यूनिट थी।

सौभाग्य से, कोरोनोवायरस प्रभाव के कारण, थर्मल प्लांट पहले से ही कम क्षमता पर चल रहे हैं। एक ही समय में, वे 5 अप्रैल को आपूर्ति को कम करने के लिए पूरी तरह से बंद नहीं कर सकते हैं। रविवार को उन नौ मिनटों के लिए क्षमता का उपयोग कम से कम रखे, यही किया जा सकता है|

वरिष्ठ अधिकारियों में से एक ने कहा, “जिस समय से प्रधान मंत्री ने घोषणा की, हितधारकों – बिजली जनरेटर, DISCOMs और SLDCs – ने रविवार के लिए योजना बनाना शुरू कर दिया है।”

नौ मिनट

नौ मिनट एक चुनौती है क्योंकि यह 15 मिनट के समय ब्लॉक का गठन नहीं होता है।

हमें बस इसी बात से मदद मिलेगी कि 5 अप्रैल को, केवल रोशनी बंद होगी । “लोग पंखे या एयर कंडीशनर को बंद नहीं करेंगे। इसके अलावा, स्ट्रीट लाइट और अन्य सार्वजनिक स्थानों पर रहने वाले लोग होंगे। इसके अलावा, कुछ प्रतिशत लोग ऐसे भी होंगे जो स्विच ऑफ करना भूल जाएंगे!” एक इंजीनियर का कहना है।

इंडस्ट्री में अहिकारियों को उम्मीद है कि उतार-चढ़ाव कुल बिजली की जरूरत का लगभग 9-10 प्रतिशत होगा। “यह बहुत अधिक नहीं है। एक ही समय में, बिजली की आपूर्ति को समायोजित करना आसान नहीं होगा। यह एक चुनौती है।”

विशेष रूप से चुनौतीपूर्ण 10 वें मिनट हो सकता है, जब हर कोई संभवत: फिर से रोशनी चालु कर देगा। क्या मांग में अचानक आई उछल को संभाला जा सकता है?

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