Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present and how does this benefit increase over time? There is only limited evidence and العناية بالزوج the evidence isn’t sufficient to reach an unambiguous conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we’re not sure how much the influence of each factor is.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, although women have an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.

__S.17__

__S.19__

In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.

Let’s now look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two areas stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was quite small, it has increased substantially over time.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

..